Burkhalter et al.’s (2002) self-reinforcing model of democratic deliberation is well established, but lacks an account of legitimacy, which is a key element of most democratic-deliberative theories. We extend Burkhalter et al.’s model by proposing a new model called “symbolic-cognitive proceduralism,” which explains how democratic-deliberative processes generate legitimacy, and how such legitimacy contributes to the social reproduction of deliberation. Our proposed model accounts for perceived and normative legitimacy, at interpersonal and macro-social levels of analysis, over short and long time-spans, and accords with substantial empirical evidence.
Richards, Robert C. Jr and Gastil, John
"Symbolic-Cognitive Proceduralism: A Model of Deliberative Legitimacy,"
Journal of Public Deliberation: Vol. 11
, Article 3.
Available at: https://www.publicdeliberation.net/jpd/vol11/iss2/art3